Linux Basic


Basic Commands :-

1.ls -l for listing the files as well as directories those are kept in
the particular working directory
syntax
[root@nettech root]#ls -l

2.ls -la same as ‘ls -l’but by this command we can also see the hidden
files.
syntax
[root@nettech root]#ls -la

3.ls -li same as ‘ls -la’ but it will also shows us the inode number of
each and every file
syntax
[root@nettech root]#ls -li

4.ls by this command we can see only file name nothing else
syntax
[root@nettech root]#ls

5.clear it will clear the screen(short cut ctl+l)
syntax
[root@nettech root]#clear

6.exit to end a current session as well current terminal logging
syntax
[root@nettech root]exit

7.touch to create a new empty file
syntax
[root@nettech root]#touch

8.cd to change the working/present directory
syntax
[root@nettech root]#cd /home/mango
where ‘/home/mango’ is the desired directory to be change from
‘/root’

9.cat to view the contents of a file and it is also used for creating a
new file with some contents
syntax
[root@nettech root]#cat <file name>to view file contents
[root@nettech root]#cat > newfilenameenter,then you can write something in
the file and then to save the file contents press clt+d then enter

10.mkdir to make a new directory
syntax
[root@nettech root]#mkdir newdirname
you can also create a directory at your desired path without
changing your present working directory
syntax
[root@nettech root]#mkdir /home/mango/newdirname

11.rm to remove a empty file
syntax
[root@nettech root]#rm filename

12.rmdir to remove a empty directory
syntax
[root@nettech root]#rmdir directoryname

13.rm [-i/-r/-f] to remove a directory with its subdirectories as well as its
files that is to remove a directory which already contains some files in it
syntax
[root@nettech root]#rm -i directory/filename
-i stands for interactively
-r stands for recursively
-f stands for forcefully

14.cp to copy something in a destination file or directory
syntax
[root@nettech root]#cp sourcepath destinationpath
example: [root@nettech root]#cp /home/mango/webmin.rpm /root/abcd
in this example the webmin.rpm file will be copied in
/root/abcd directory

15.mv to move one file or directory from one place to another place, it
is also used for renaming adirectory or file
syntax
[root@nettech root]#mv source destination
[root@nettech root]#mv oldfilename newfilename[to change the file name]

16.man to view the mannual page of commands for syntax
syntax
[root@nettech root]#man commandname

17.info to view the information about any command
syntax
[root@nettech root]#mkdir info

18.–help to view the help doccuments of a command
syntax
[root@nettech root]#commandname –help

19.dir to view the subdirectories and filesn under the directory
syntax
[root@nettech root]#dir

20.su -to become a super user
syntax
[mango@nettech mango]$su –
output wil be
[root@nettech root#]

21.who by this command you can see the user name and their ip addresses
who have loged in on your server
syntax
[root@nettech root]#who

22.whoami this command shows your current logged in terminal user name
syntax
[root@nettech root]#whoami

23.who am i this command shows you the logged in terminal number and user
name and more detailed information
syntax
[root@nettech root]#who am i

24.pwd to view the present working directory
syntax
[root@nettech root]#pwd

25.rpm -ivh to intall a rpm package
syntax
[root@nettech root]#rpm -ivh packagename.rpm
rpm stands for ‘redhat package manager’
-i stands for install
-v stands for verbose mode
-h stands for with hash sign(#)

26.rpm -q to querry about any rpm package
syntax
[root@nettech root]#rpm -q packagename

27.rpm -e to uninstall a rpm package
synatx
[root@nettech root]#rpm -e package

28.find / -name to find any file or directory in linux file system
syntax
[root@nettech root]#find / -name filename

29.su username to switch from one user to another users home directory
syntax
[root@nettech root]#su mango
output will be
[mango@nettech root]#cd
[mango@nettech mango]#

30.su – username to switch from one user to another user users home
directory directly
syntax
[root@nettech root]#su – mango

31.useradd to create a new user
synatx
[root@nettech root]#useradd username

32.passwdto give a password of a user
syntax
[root@nettech root]#passwd tarun
output will be
give a password for user tarun:(here you have to type a password for tarun user)
confirm password:(again type the same password)

33.userdel to remove a user from linux
syntax
[root@nettech root]#userdel tarun

34.groupadd to add a new group
syntax
[root@nettech root]#groupadd groupname

35.gruopdel to delete a group
syntax
[root@nettech root]#groupdel groupname

36.chown to change the ownership of a file or directory
syntax
[root@nettech root]#chown ownername filename
example:
[root@nettech /]#ls -l
output
drwxrw-rw-2 rootroot4096 Mar 11 12:03 abcd
(permission)(own) (group own)(size)(name)
[root@nettech root]#chown tarun /abcd
in this example /abcd directory owner will be change to tarun user
effect
[root@nettech /]#ls -l
drwxrw-rw-2 tarunroot4096 Mar 11 12:03 abcd

37.chgrp to change the group ownership of a file or directory
syntax
[root@nettec root]#chgrp newgroupownername filename
example
[root@nettech /]#ls -l
drwxrw-rw-2 tarunroot4096 Mar 11 12:03 abcd
[root@nettech root]#chgrp tarun /abcd
effect
[root@nettech /]#ls -l
drwxrw-rw-2 taruntarun4096 Mar 11 12:03 abcd

38.usermod
/]#ls -l
2 tarunroot
/]#chmod 402 /abcd
/]#ls -l
2 taruntarun
4096 Mar 11 12:03 abcd
4096 Mar 11 12:03 abcd
to modify the user profile
syntax
[root@nettech root]#usermod -parameter groupname username

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